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2003—2004年:中国就业报告

时间:2004-6-6  作者:莫荣  来源:劳动和社会保障部劳动科学研究所  查看:3479  评论:0
内容摘要:2003—2004年:中国就业报告摘要2003年,我国面临着十分严峻的就业形势,除了下岗失业人员再就业任务繁重之外,就业呈现新的特征。特征之一是高校毕业生的就业问题突出,青年就业问题成为社会关注的热点;特征之二是“非典”对就业产生较大影响,旅游...

2003—2004年:中国就业报告

2003-2004年:中国就业报告

摘要

2003年,我国面临着十分严峻的就业形势,除了下岗失业人员再就业任务繁重之外,就业呈现新的特征。特征之一是高校毕业生的就业问题突出,青年就业问题成为社会关注的热点;特征之二是“非典”对就业产生较大影响,旅游业等第三产业受到较大的冲击,并对就业产生了较大的影响。2003年还是我国将增加就业和控制失业率列为国民经济和社会发展宏观调控主要指标的第一年,面对严峻的就业形势,在党中央高度重视下,经过各方面的努力,克服了“非典”不利影响,全面完成了全年的增加就业、再就业和控制失业率的目标。
2003年扩大就业目标的实现与我国经济增长和积极的就业政策的贯彻落实分不开。经济克服了“非典”的影响,增长率达到91%,为增加就业岗位奠定了良好基础。积极的就业政策全面贯彻落实,同时,党中央、国务院在8月中旬召开了下岗职工再就业工作座谈会,进一步放宽了再就业的政策空间,为扩大困难群体再就业和实现全年就业调控目标提供了保证。
2004年的就业形势依然不容乐观。一方面,要集中精力为解决好国有企业、集体企业下岗失业人员这“一代人”的就业和社会保障问题打一场攻坚战;另一方面,还要面对长期失业人员增加,大学生等青年就业问题凸显,拓宽农村劳动力就业的渠道,为他们提供优质就业服务,创造平等就业环境等问题。2004年的城镇失业率可能增加,主要因素包括:一是当前正是面临自然新生劳动力的高峰期。当前我国正处于自然新生劳动力增长的又一个高峰期,新生劳动力供给增大。2004年城镇劳动力供给的年增加量为1 500万人。某种意义上,大学毕业生初次就业率下降,就是新生劳动力增长处于高峰的一个反映。二是下岗职工出中心后转化为失业人员。2003年年底仍然有260万下岗职工滞留在中心,他们在今后将逐步出中心,部分没有实现再就业的下岗职工将成为失业人员。这部分人员中,更多的人员再就业困难,面临长期失业问题。一些没有进入中心的下岗职工也将逐步与企业解除劳动关系,成为失业人员。三是结构调整的因素。随着入世后我国政府的一些承诺的期限临近,企业将面临国际市场更加激烈的竞争压力,进一步调整产业和产品结构成为越来越紧迫的要求,因此必然引发就业结构调整。
虽然2004年的就业形势比较严峻,但也有有利的因素:一是预计我国经济仍将保持较快增长的势头,为增加就业机会、调整就业结构提供了基础;二是各级政府高度重视就业问题,将就业工作摆到政府工作的更加突出的位置,积极的就业政策进一步贯彻落实,为扩大就业提供了保证;三是更加重视职业培训和劳动力市场建设,就业服务不断发展;四是在促进青年就业特别是大学生就业方面,政策进一步明确,体制障碍逐步被打破,为促进就业创造了条件。
当前需要保持经济发展速度,调整经济结构,形成经济发展与扩大就业良性互动,充分开发利用劳动力资源;进一步明确政府在就业工作中的职能定位,不断改善创业和就业环境,积极促进就业;加强劳动力市场建设,增强就业服务的针对性、实效性,推进就业服务的专业化、制度化和社会化;加强基础工作,不断完善就业政策。

Summary

China witnessed serious employment situation in the year of 2003. While we were facing the heavy task of reemployment of laid off workers from SOEs, new problems emerged with the college graduates employment getting more and more difficult and becoming a focus of whole society and the affection of SARS on employment especially in service and tourist sector. The Chinese government for the first time took the employment improvement and unemployment control as one of the major targets in its macro economic and social adjustment work. Facing the serous situation, the central government paid much attention to employment and all the concerning parties spared no efforts to tackle the problem. And we overcame the negative impact of SARS and fulfilled our targets of increasing employment and controlling unemployment rate.
The achievement was attributed to the economic growth and the implementation of the Active Employment Policy. The economic growth, which was 91% in 2003, laid down a solid foundation for the increase of employment. And at the same time the Reemployment Meeting held by the Central Committee of CPC and the State Council, the implementation of the Active Employment Policy further enlarged employment spaces and ensured the employment target to be fulfilled.
The employment situation in 2004 is still not optimistic. While we are facing the hard task in improving the employment of laid off worker of SOEs and collective enterprises, we must face the newly emerged problems: the number of longterm unemployed are increasing; the employment problem of college graduates are becoming more and more serious; the enlargement of employment channels, better employment services and equal employment environment for rural labor forces are in desperate need. The employment rate of 2004 is likely to increase because of the following reasons: first, we are experiencing another peak of labor force booming with 15 million newly born labor forces supply each year and far exceeding the demand. The decrease of the employment rate of college graduates is in a sense a reflection of the supply peak. Second, some laid off workers will leave the Reemployment Center and become unemployed in terms of statistics. Most of these laid off workers are difficult persons in employment and they will likely become longterm employed. Third, china will conduct further restructuring to meet its commitment to the requirement as a WTO member, and enterprises will face more severe competition, which will cause the employment restructuring and the increase of unemployment.
Although we are facing serious situation, we have several active actors and advantages: First, a fast economic growth rate is expected which would provide good foundation for employment. Second, government at all levels attaches great importance to employment issue and takes it as its high priority which will provide the guarantee to employment improvement. Third, more attention are paid to vocational training, employment service and labor market construction. Forth, the policy to improve college graduates employment is further clearified and system obstacles are further cleaned.
At present we are facing the following tasks: to maintain the economic growth momentum and restructure the economic structures and form beneficial interaction between the economic growth and employment growth; to clearly identify the government role in employment work and continuously better the employment environment and improve employment; to strengthen the labor market construction enhance the practical efficiency and individually orientation in employment services and push forward the specialization and systematization and socialization of employment services; to strengthen the basic works and improve the employment policies.

章节目录:

总论 2003—2004年的就业形势和政策(1)
第1篇 宏观经济与就业政策(20)
第2篇 SARS对就业的影响(48)
第3篇 转型时期企业劳动关系的调整(81)
第4篇 职业培训的新发展(98)
第5篇 下岗失业人员的再就业(132)
第6篇 大学生群体的就业(155)
第7篇 灵活就业中的劳务派遣(175)
第8篇 农村劳动力的就业与转移(201)
第9篇 劳动力市场的发展(223)

书名: 2003—2004年:中国就业报告
书号: G06-2558
ISBN: 7-5045-2558-8/F.844
作者: 莫荣
印次: 1-1
开本: 16
装订:
字数: 286 千字
定价: ¥32.00
出版日期: 2004-04-19

此书由中国劳动社会保障出版社出版发行


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